Peaks and valleys book pdf

National Park Management Plan consultation Here’s peaks and valleys book pdf opportunity to have your say on the Draft National Park Management Plan for 2019-2024. Download this chapter in PDF format Chapter9. How to order your own hardcover copy Wouldn’t you rather have a bound book instead of 640 loose pages? Your laser printer will thank you!

It is very common for information to be encoded in the sinusoids that form a signal. This is true of naturally occurring signals, as well as those that have been created by humans. Many things oscillate in our universe. An example will show how this works. Suppose we want to investigate the sounds that travel through the ocean.

To begin, a microphone is placed in the water and the resulting electronic signal amplified to a reasonable level, say a few volts. An analog low-pass filter is then used to remove all frequencies above 80 hertz, so that the signal can be digitized at 160 samples per second. After acquiring and storing several thousand samples, what next? The first thing is to simply look at the data.

Figure 9-1a shows 256 samples from our imaginary experiment. All that can be seen is a noisy waveform that conveys little information to the human eye. Unfortunately, this also looks like a noisy mess. This is because there is not enough information in the original 256 points to obtain a well behaved curve. Using a longer DFT does nothing to help this problem. For example, if a 2048 point DFT is used, the frequency spectrum becomes 1025 samples long. The answer is to use more of the original signal in a way that doesn’t increase the number of points in the frequency spectrum.

This can be done by breaking the input signal into many 256 point segments. Each of these segments is multiplied by the Hamming window, run through a 256 point DFT, and converted to polar notation. The resulting frequency spectra are then averaged to form a single 129 point frequency spectrum. There is also a second method for reducing spectral noise. Start by taking a very long DFT, say 16,384 points.

A low-pass digital filter is then used to smooth the spectrum, reducing the noise at the expense of the resolution. For example, the simplest digital filter might average 64 adjacent samples in the original spectrum to produce each sample in the filtered spectrum. The first method is easier, because the digital filter isn’t needed. The second method has the potential of better performance, because the digital filter can be tailored to optimize the trade-off between noise and resolution. However, this improved performance is seldom worth the trouble. This is because both noise and resolution can be improved by using more data from the input signal. 10,000 segments of 16,384 samples each.

For this reason, we will only look at the averaged segment method in this discussion. Figure 9-2 shows an example spectrum from our undersea microphone, illustrating the features that commonly appear in the frequency spectra of acquired signals. Ignore the sharp peaks for a moment. Between 10 and 70 hertz, the signal consists of a relatively flat region. It results from the noise on the time domain waveform being uncorrelated from sample-to-sample. That is, knowing the noise value present on any one sample provides no information on the noise value present on any other sample. For example, the random motion of electrons in electronic circuits produces white noise.