Complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus pdf

Nearly 30 million battle diabetes and every 23 seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus pdf diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

If you have type 2 diabetes your body does not use insulin properly. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it isn’t able to keep up and can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose at normal levels. Facts About Type 2 Read more about type 2 diabetes and how it affects the body. Recently Diagnosed Get the information and support you need during the early weeks and months after your diagnosis. Care Stay one step ahead of your diabetes with these treatment strategies. This resource will give you the first steps for managing your type 2 diabetes.

Complications With the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes, many people with diabetes are able to prevent or delay the onset of complications. Medication Get more information about types of medications and how they work. More Work with your doctors to create the best treatment plan for you. Your First Year with Diabetes, 2nd Edition Do you have a new diabetes diagnosis? Our step-by-step book of basic diabetes education tells you what to do next! Enroll in the FREE Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program Recently diagnosed?

Let us guide you during your first year with six informational packets to help you learn to live well with diabetes. Patient Education Materials – Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, and hand it out to patients. A Future Without Diabetes – a-future-without-diabetes-1. Get Local Enter your ZIP to find out what’s going on near you. Healthy Recipes: Delicious Recipe Kits Delivered – 2017-03-chefd. Ways to Give : Vacation for Donations – ways-to-give-201710-hotelscom.

Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! Ask the Experts: Learn to Live Well with Diabetes – ask-the-experts. Healthy Recipes: Build a Better Breakfast – 2017-01-breakfast-recipes. Podcast Series: In It Together celebrates the steps you take – in-it-together. Diabetes is a group of chronic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia.

Modern medical care uses a vast array of lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions aimed at preventing and controlling hyperglycemia. In addition to ensuring the adequate delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body, treatment of diabetes attempts to decrease the likelihood that the tissues of the body are harmed by hyperglycemia. Microvascular Complications of Diabetes Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy may be the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. 10,000 new cases of blindness every year in the United States alone. Aldose reductase may participate in the development of diabetes complications. Aldose reductase is the initial enzyme in the intracellular polyol pathway.

High glucose levels increase the flux of sugar molecules through the polyol pathway, which causes sorbitol accumulation in cells. Cells are also thought to be injured by glycoproteins. In animal models, these substances have also been associated with formation of microaneurysms and pericyte loss. Evaluations of AGE inhibitors are underway. Oxidative stress may also play an important role in cellular injury from hyperglycemia. High glucose levels can stimulate free radical production and reactive oxygen species formation.

VEGF production is increased in diabetic retinopathy, possibly in response to hypoxia. In animal models, suppressing VEGF production is associated with less progression of retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is generally classified as either background or proliferative. It is important to have a general understanding of the features of each to interpret eye examination reports and advise patients of disease progression and prognosis. Background retinopathy includes such features as small hemorrhages in the middle layers of the retina.

Hard exudates are caused by lipid deposition that typically occurs at the margins of hemorrhages. Microaneurysms are small vascular dilatations that occur in the retina, often as the first sign of retinopathy. They clinically appear as red dots during retinal examination. Proliferative retinopathy is characterized by the formation of new blood vessels on the surface of the retina and can lead to vitreous hemorrhage. If proliferation continues, blindness can occur through vitreous hemorrhage and traction retinal detachment.

The precise nature of injury to the peripheral nerves from hyperglycemia is not known but likely is related to mechanisms such as polyol accumulation, in addition to aggressive treatment of elevated blood glucose, dependent diabetes mellitus. In a genetically susceptible individual, putting their medical care and their glycemic control at risk. Dose human regular u, type 1 DM can occur at any age. With multiple genes involved, and drink plenty of fluids when you are taking them. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity, benefits of tight glycemic control include not only continued reductions in the rates of microvascular complications but also significant differences in cardiovascular events and overall mortality.